Tag Archives: To Your Health


How Understanding Your Temperament Can Help You Cope With COVID-19 Stress

emily agnew

by Emily Agnew, Member of Local 66 (Rochester, NY)

In August 1987, the Honolulu Symphony went on strike. During our four months on the picket line, I experienced a level of stress like nothing I had ever felt before. Our union strike fund stipend of $100 a week was a lifeline. I pulled myself together and got a job waiting tables for the lunch shift at an upscale restaurant. But I suffered terrible stomach aches. I lived in a state of near-overwhelm all the time. Anything could push me over the edge: I still remember the sheer panic I felt when my Plymouth Valiant overheated in rush-hour traffic.

Stressful as that strike was, it was a minor event compared to the challenge thousands of musicians are dealing with now due to COVID-19. Back then, I could just buy a new water pump for my car; restaurants were open for business. I felt scared to death about money, but the word “death” was a figure of speech, not the literal danger we face now from this virus. And most importantly, I wasn’t homebound or isolated. I could see friends, and I met with my fellow HSO musicians every week to eat the Portuguese bean soup that union president Milton Carter cooked for us.

Stress has two elements: an external stimulus, and our response to that stimulus. I’d like to talk about the response part of that equation, and specifically, the way your temperament affects your response to stress. The information I’ll share here won’t pay the mortgage, make your roommate less irritating, or flatten the curve. But it will help you to meet those challenges in a calmer, more effective way as the world works to get COVID-19 under control.

Temperament: Understanding How 20% of Us are Different, and What That Means

In 1992, a psychologist in California, Dr. Elaine Aron, identified a temperament trait she had observed in many of her clients. She called it “Sensory Processing Sensitivity,” popularly referred to as “High Sensitivity.” I learned about the trait eight years later from a psychology magazine. Glancing at the bulleted list in the page sidebar, I read an eerily accurate description of myself. “Needs 8-10 hours of sleep to function well.” Check. “Sensitive to bright lights, loud sounds, harsh fabrics, or strong smells.” Check. “Needs to recharge alone in a quiet room.” Check. “Gets rattled when rushed or required to do multiple things at once.” Check. No doubt about it: I was one of these “highly sensitive” types the article described.


In the years since Dr. Aron published The Highly Sensitive Person, her first book about the trait, dozens of studies have given us more information about it. High sensitivity is in fact an inherited trait, found inabout one in five men and women around the world. It is not a syndrome or a pathology. Rather, it is a functional evolutionary response to new situations, characterized by a “wait, watch, then act” approach. 

All highly sensitive people—HSPs for short—share the fundamental neurobiological characteristic of the trait: pronounced deep processing ability. HSPs are sensitive to subtlety, taking in more information from our environment. And we are keenly empathetic, feelingour own and others’ emotions more intensely than people who are not highly sensitive. In some ways, our trait makes us ideally suited for a music career, and many musicians are highly sensitive. However, all our noticing, feeling, and processing also contributes to HSPs’ biggest challenge: we get overaroused more easily than the other 80% of people.

Being Highly Sensitive During a Pandemic

Our vulnerability to overarousal is even more pronounced during an intensely stressful time like this one. Faced with the multiple complex implications of the pandemic and the overwhelming number of unknowns, our deep-processing minds can easily go into overwhelm. When a highly sensitive person gets exhausted or overaroused, or both, we lose connection with our natural empathy. At best, we feel miserably stressed. At worst, we shut down, act out, or even blow up.

If you are highly sensitive, you need to know how to take care of yourself to avoid overarousal. It takes skill to regulate your intense emotions. Ideally, you’d learn that skill as a child. But for those of us who didn’t, it’s never too late. (That’s the kind of work I do with sensitive clients using a process called Focusing.) And for those of you who aren’t highly sensitive, the odds are high that you live with, work with, or hang out with sensitive people. You can support the HSPs in your life by better understanding their trait.

Five Ways to Lower Stress and Overarousal

During this pandemic, each of us faces a unique configuration of challenges. Some people are in better shape financially than others, but no musician is unaffected by the pandemic. Highly sensitive or not, we all need practical, effective ways to keep our heads on straight in these extremely difficult conditions. These five steps can help anyone lower their stress, and are particularly important for sensitive people:

1. Learn more about the HSP trait. The better you understand it, the more effectively you can take care of yourself and/or support the HSPs in your life. Elaine Aron’s website (https://hsperson.com) has extensive research documentation and many articles about all aspects of sensitivity, and a self-test you can take to determine if you are highly sensitive.

2. Acknowledge your external stressors and calculate your stress level. If you need stronger motivation to take care of yourself, use the Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory to compute the total point value of recent external events in your life. Holmes and Rahe demonstrated the dramatic effect of stress on health, finding that when your point total exceeds 150 on the inventory, your risk of a major health breakdown in the next two years increases 50%.This risk increases by a startling 80% if your score exceeds 300 points.

3. Identify the internal stressors contributing to your level of stress. Your internal stressors may range from chronic worrying to catastrophic thinking and harsh self-criticism. In addition, highly sensitive people tend to be so conscientious and solicitous of the needs of others that we may minimize or ignore our own needs, creating internal stress. Talking to a friend, family member, or therapist can help you become more aware of such patterns, so you can regain perspective and respond in healthier ways.

4. Take steps to keep your arousal level down. Highly sensitive people need solitude to process and recharge. If you can possibly find some time alone each day, do. If your stress level is chronically elevated, you can re-train your body to a calmer baseline by resting in a simple, enjoyable restorative yoga pose for 15 minutes a day (found on YouTube at https://youtu.be/BgGQJTGMNe0). I do it every day after lunch.

5. Trust your intuition as you make decisions. Highly sensitive people are gifted with particularly keen intuition. As your stress level decreases, your access to this sense of inner rightness increases—another motivation for taking care of yourself and skillfully managing your arousal levels. Meditation helps by lowering your arousal and is a powerful support to your intuition.

These five steps can benefit all of us during the COVID-19 pandemic, and they are indispensable if you are highly sensitive. I’m living proof: though my current Holmes-Rahe score is similar to my score during the 1987 Honolulu Symphony strike, I’m relatively calm. I’ve avoided the kind of stress tsunami I experienced back then. The difference? Greater knowledge of my sensitive trait, and hard-won arousal-management skills.

If you think you might be highly sensitive, take the self-test and begin learning. Managing your overarousal is a vital skill to help you stay well during this pandemic.

After 30 years of performing and teaching, including five years playing second oboe for the Honolulu Symphony, Emily Agnew now works with creative, sensitive people around the world in 1:1 sessions and courses. You can find more free stress-relieving resources on her website at https://sustainablysensitive.com.

mental health

Advice for Taking Care of Your Mental Health as a Musician

by Roz Bruce, Guest Contributor

When you’re a musician, be it in a rock band, jazz ensemble, or a classical orchestra, it’s likely you have a schedule that’s tough on your body and your mind. Even if you’re not a full-time musician, those late nights and the fast-food meals can take their toll.

mental health

For many people, listening to music or playing an instrument is a way of dealing with problems and can help improve mental health. However, many musicians struggle with mental illness, which in some cases ends in tragedy.

As a songwriter and musician, I know how easy it can be to let your health slip when you’re gigging, touring, or even just heavily involved in a creative process. I remember, in the early days of my songwriting, sacrificing sleep, food, and relationships as I allowed myself to be possessed by the creative process that would end up taking its toll on my mental well-being as I suffered depression and anxiety. Later albums, which I recorded more healthily, were undoubtedly better as well as more enjoyable to create.

It’s so important to look after your mental health as a musician; it’s what helps you create, interpret, play, and enjoy music. Here is some advice for how you can help to take care of yourself both at home and on the road.

Take Some Time for You

This one is the hardest to stick to for musicians. You rehearse, prepare, play, get home tired, sleep in the next day, or go to work and repeat. It can be so exhausting and draining. You need to remember that music is a gift and you’ll burn out if you only ever give, give, give.

Take some time to do things that have no purpose other than for yourself. Read a book, have a bath, do whatever you enjoy, but do it just for you. This is an essential aspect of mental wellness. Two books that I have found particularly enjoyable and helpful are Destination Happiness: 12 Simple Principles That Will Change Your Life, by Mark Reklau, and The Little Book of Self Care, by Mel Noakes.

Take some time for yourself, by yourself. You’ll thank yourself.

Don’t Compare Yourself to Others

This really is a psychological one. Performing makes you sensitive. Yes, even you, tough guy. After you’ve performed, you’re much more likely to see the potential negatives in anything anyone says to you. Didn’t they like the songs? They hate us. Or if nobody says anything, oh my gosh! The worst. They were all embarrassed. They thought we were awful.

mental health

Then the next band goes on, and everyone is cheering *because they know them*… and you’re thinking, “Nobody did that for us … we must have been terrible.”

When reflecting on your performance, reflect on your performance. What did you do well? What could have gone better? How? Comparing yourself to other bands or performers will never lead you to anything helpful or insightful.

Eat and Drink

It sounds so obvious, but this is a big one. We need to eat to stay alive, right? But when you have to be at a venue at 4:30 p.m., sound check at 6 p.m., play at 8:30 p.m., leave the gig at 11 p.m., where’s the time for food? It’s really worth taking some food with you to a gig. Look after your body and your mind will flourish. Just get past the uncool-ness of it and prepare a packed lunch. Alternatively, try getting a healthy meal at least some of the time, rather than burgers every time you’re gigging. It’s so much better for your mood.

It’s also easy to forget to hydrate yourself when you’re out and about. Performing takes a lot of energy, and it’s not unusual to sweat when you’re on stage. This makes you more dehydrated. Make sure to keep water flowing. It hydrates your brain as well as your body, and you’ll find your mood improving as a result. Best of all, water is free.

Reach Out

If you do find yourself struggling, don’t forget that help is out there. The worst thing you can do is to keep stuff bottled up inside. Try speaking to someone close to you and getting that fear, anxiety, anger, or whatever off your chest. If you don’t have health insurance, you can get free help and look for mental health resources online. For example, the SIMS Foundation in Texas helps to provide musicians with mental health resources, as does the New Orleans Musicians’ Clinic. In Canada, the Canadian Mental Health Association has a presence in more than 330 communities across every province and one territory. You should also save your state’s mental health crisis line, just in case you need it.

Roz Bruce is a professional musician, songwriter, and teacher based in Nottingham, UK. She has personal experience with depression and anxiety and has a commitment to helping others in mental distress. www.guitaristroz.com.

Migraines: Help for More Pain-Free Days

Those who suffer from migraines experience severe, debilitating throbbing pain, often occurring on one side of the head. Attacks frequently cause disabling symptoms. Visual disturbances, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, fainting, and severe sensitivity to light, sound, touch, and smell, are common. More than one billion people worldwide are affected by migraines, making it the third most prevalent illness in the world.

As a musician, migraines can significantly curtail your career, especially if you are one of the more than 4 million people who experience chronic migraines, occurring at least 15 times per month. While migraines often go undiagnosed and untreated, it is best to visit your doctor to discuss your headaches, talk about treatment, and consider underlying causes.

Seek immediate medical treatment if you experience an abrupt, severe headache; headache with fever, stiff neck, mental confusion, seizures, double vision, weakness, numbness, or trouble speaking; headache following a head injury; chronic headache that worsens with coughing, movement, or exertion; and new headache pain if you are over age 50.

Tracking Migraine Triggers

Doctors recommend keeping a headache diary. Note when you do and do not have migraines. What activities were you participating in? What did you eat or drink? How much sleep did you get the night before? By discovering what triggers your migraines, you may be able to minimize occurrence. Common migraine triggers include:

  • Diet—aged cheeses, salty, processed foods, additives like aspartame and monosodium glutamate (MSG), as well as skipping meals
  • Drinks—alcohol, especially wine; and highly caffeinated beverages
  • Stress
  • Sensori stimuli—bright lights, sun glare, loud sounds, strong smells
  • Intense physical exertion
  • Changes in environment—weather, barometric pressure
  • Lack of sleep, too much sleep, or changes in sleep patterns
  • Certain medications, oral contraceptives, vasodilators
  • Nonprescription Relief

Over-the-counter pain-relieving medications are most effective when taken at the first signs or symptoms of a migraine. If possible, rest or sleep in a dark room while they take effect. If used too often or for extended periods of time, they can lead to ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding. Other ways to reduce the pain and instance of headaches include:

  • Maintain consistent daily routines, sleep patterns, and meals
  • Participate in regular aerobic exercise to reduce tension
  • Reduce medications that contain estrogen
  • Acupuncture
  • Learning to control your physical response to stress through biofeedback or cognitive behavior therapy
  • Massage therapy

Prescription Relief

For continued chronic migraines, your doctor may prescribe medications to prevent or relieve the pain. Preventative medications include cardiovascular drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, and anti-seizure drugs. Prescribed pain relievers often include triptans or ergots. All of these medications may produce side effects. It may take some trial and error with your doctor to find what works best for you and your migraines.

For more information on migraine research and treatment visit the website of the American Migraine Foundation (americanmigrainefoundation.org).

Tai Chi and the Musician: How This Martial Art Could Help Your Career

The life of a professional musician is mentally and physically demanding. A musician’s mind is taxed with the need to memorize complex music, spontaneously improvise, and maintain focus during performance, all while putting repetitive strain on the body from hours of practice. While studying for his master’s degree, musician Joe Rea Phillips discovered the benefits of martial arts for musicians.

Joe Rea Phillips, a Senior Artist Teacher at the Blair School of Music, teaches “Tai Chi for Musicians.”

He states that all martial arts benefit musicians by helping them to increase discipline, control, poise, and perseverance, but he believes tai chi ( tai chi chuan or taijiquan) is beneficial as a mind-body exercise. “All tai chi originated with the Chen family through its founder Chen Wanting (17th century  China),” he explains. Tai chi combines martial techniques, yin-yang, Chinese medicine, an acupuncture system, and correct posture to produce the balance of “stillness in movement,” like active meditation.

Musicians can develop internal principles common to those in tai chi and enhance their musicianship and ability. Phillips states that shared requirements of tai chi and music performance are:

  • relaxation and centeredness
  • discipline and constant practice
  • a clear mind
  • visualization
  • memorization
  • slow practice
  • rhythmic flow
  • artistic expression
  • being in-tune with one’s inner self

Phillips, Senior Artist teacher of guitar at Blair School of Music, Vanderbilt University, teaches the “Tai Chi for Musicians” course. “Studies show that practicing tai chi improves mental clarity and cognitive function, which is extremely important to musicians whether memorizing classical pieces or improvising,” he says. “Eliminating the body of tension, tai chi allows instrumentalists to be efficient and accurate. Performances become stronger and more expressive with improved endurance.” Phillips has also assisted conductors, applying tai chi movement principles to conducting.

Tai Chi’s Benefits for Musicians

Warm up and practicing—“We are guilty of just grabbing our instruments and starting to play, and this is a formula for disaster over a period of time,” says Phillips. Tai chi exercises are ideal for warming up the body, opening joints, allowing the chi (intrinsic energy) to fully flow. “A 10-minute warmup pays great dividends.”

Tai chi’s slow movements develop precision, good posture, and balance. “People observe tai chi and think that it’s not a martial art because it moves slowly and this is not true,” he says. Instead, spending time on slow movements results in quicker, more relaxed, and more accurate movements. This practice transfers well to learning new music or musical technique.

Reducing performance injuries—Musicians are subject to repetitive strain injuries.  These are caused by long hours of repetitive practice, not warming up well, tension, and poor posture. Proper posture is a built-in benefit of tai chi. “One’s chi will not flow properly without being in perfect posture, which is one of the prime requirements of tai chi,” says Phillips. Tai chi teaches that all movement originates from the dan tien, which is where one’s chi is stored (three fingers below the navel and about one and a half inches inside the body). Understanding and practicing tai chi creates an awareness of unitary movement that transfers well to performance on an instrument.

Phillips also states, “Learning important principles of tai chi, such as warming up the body properly, good posture, and complete relaxation, prevent many performance injuries. I’ve had students with performance injuries, such as tendonitis and carpal tunnel experience significant improvement after taking my tai chi class.”

Reducing stress and mental fatigue—“Stress not only kills good music performance, but as medical research has proven, it kills literally,” says Phillips. “The idea is for musicians to experience the great feeling of well-being that comes with a good tai chi workout. There is an emphasis on students experiencing the sensation of the flow of chi throughout their bodies.”

Enhancing changeability/playability—“In tai chi one must remain changeable in order to deal with an aggressor’s attack. It teaches to yield and adhere to the aggressor, then counter at a key moment when the aggressor has lost balance,” says Phillips. “A tai chi practitioner maintains flow, just like a musician should maintain flow, regardless of mistakes or unexpected events while performing. Tai chi also enhances a performer’s flowing rhythm, which is reflected in their playing.”

“In tai chi there is a constant exchange of yin and yang, which will at times have very clear projection of chi, which is referred to as fajin,” he explains. “There’s an awareness of projection that’s acquired after much training in tai chi and this projection principle can help a musician project a better quality of sound on the instrument, as well as project poise, confidence, and emotional balance to an audience.”

Finding a Teacher

“Check on the background and lineage of any teacher. There are good and bad tai chi teachers, as there are good and bad guitar teachers. Unlike other styles of martial arts where belt ranks are important, in tai chi it’s all about your teacher and the lineage connection,” he says.

Phillips has trained in Chinese martial arts for 40 years and tai chi for 32 years. He started with Yang style of the Cheng Man Ching lineage, and trained in Chen style for 22 years. Phillips is a 20th generation Disciple of Grandmaster Chen Xiaowang who is one of the few holders of the highest rank of 9th Duan Wei conferred by the Chinese Wushu Federation.

“Tai chi is a beautiful and powerful martial art that provides a complete system of training and health benefits to all, including musicians,” he says.

Joe Rea Phillips (joereaphillips@yahoo.com) is available for seminars on “Tai Chi for Musicians.” To find a qualified instructor visit the American Tai Chi and Qigong Association (americantaichi.org) website.

The Season for Sneezin’: Dealing with Allergic Rhinitis

Allergies are among the most common chronic health conditions worldwide and statistics show the number of people affected is increasing. In the US alone, researchers believe that nasal allergies affect about 50 million people. According to the American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI), each year 17.9 million adults and 7.1 million children are diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, commonly called hay fever.

Allergic reactions like rhinitis (inflammation of the nose) occur when the immune system mistakes an otherwise harmless substance (an allergen) as an invader. The system overreacts and produces antibodies that cause an allergic reaction. Hay fever is commonly a reaction to pollen from trees and grasses, or ragweed. As the summer concert and touring season kicks in, here is what experts recommend.

Don’t wait until allergy symptoms begin before taking medications. Start taking what worked for you in the past before the season starts. There are five common types of over-the-counter treatments.

  • Antihistamines are taken by mouth or as a nasal spray and can relieve sneezing and itching in the nose and eyes. They also reduce runny nose and, to a lesser extent, nasal stuffiness.
  • Decongestants are taken by mouth or as a nasal spray or drops and help shrink the lining of the nasal passages, which relieves nasal stuffiness. These nose drops and sprays should be taken short-term.
  • Nasal corticosteroids are used in nasal spray form. They reduce inflammation in the nose and block allergic reactions. They are most effective for allergic rhinitis because they can reduce all symptoms and have few side effects.
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the action of important chemical messengers, not just histamine.
  • Cromolyn sodium is a nasal spray that blocks the release of chemicals that cause allergy symptoms, including histamine and leukotrienes. This medicine has few side effects, but must be taken four times a day.

Consider seeing an allergist who can pinpoint the cause and help you find the best treatment. Don’t disregard getting immunotherapy treatment (allergy shots). According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), shots help reduce hay fever symptoms in about 85% of people with allergic rhinitis. It can actually save you money over time on reduced prescription and over-the-counter medication costs. And, if you include the cost of missed gigs and opportunities, doing away with your allergies can actually save you a bundle.

To avoid allergens and reduce symptoms don’t touch your face and wash your hands often. Use HEPA filters in your vacuum and air conditioners in your car and home. Keep windows shut during the high pollen and mold seasons. Wash your bed linens and pillowcases in hot water and detergent to reduce allergens and use dust mite proof covers. Keep pets out of the bedroom to reduce pet dander allergens in your bedding.

Wear sunglasses and a wide-brimmed hat to reduce pollen getting into your eyes. Avoid exposure to other types of irritants like smoke. Avoiding certain foods may help. About one-third of seasonal allergy sufferers get the sniffles or sneeze when they eat certain raw or fresh foods such as apples, cherries, oranges, plums, almonds, and walnuts. This is because their immune system confuses the proteins of pollen with those of the foods.

When traveling, check destination pollen counts before you go. Make sure you get a smoke-free, mold-free, pet-free hotel room. If traveling by vehicle, be sure its air filters have been recently replaced, and if possible, have the ventilation/air conditioning system cleaned. Pack needed quantities of medications, plus a backup supply in a separate location. Before leaving, check the extent and limitations of your medical insurance to make sure you will be covered.

For help finding an allergist visit the AAAAI (www.aaaai.org) or the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (www.acaai.org) websites.

Easing Jet Lag: A Biochemist Weighs In

A touring musician is no stranger to the pitfalls of air travel—cramped economy seating, lost and mishandled luggage, and perhaps one of the worst is the dreaded jet lag. Combating daytime fatigue and nighttime insomnia, in severe cases, it can take days to revert to a normal sleep schedule.

Scientists are beginning to understand more about how human circadian rhythms work. Their studies may eventually lead to therapeutic “cures” for jet lag. Researchers at the Salk Institute have found two receptors in the nuclei of human and mouse cells that control sleep and metabolic cycles.

Also, this year the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young for their research about biological clocks. Brian Crane, Cornell biochemist and a colleague of Young, broke down why people become jet lagged in the first place and possible solutions for weary travelers.

What is jet lag?

Jet lag is associated with physical symptoms, but on a molecular level, it’s your body struggling to adapt to the new day-night cycle wherever you’re staying. “In most of your cells there’s a molecular oscillator—a little clock that keeps track of time,” explains Crane. Your biological clock cannot be changed as simply as winding the hands to match the time zone. “The clocks in your eyes and brain adapt quickly, but they have to train your peripheral clocks—in your liver, intestines, and heart. So, you get jet lagged because different parts of your body think it’s different times of day.”

What can you do to fight jet lag?

While it is tempting to hop straight into bed after a long, exhausting flight, Crane advises you should adapt your biological clock as soon as possible and try to adjust to the new day-night cycle wherever you are. “In mammals, there’s a lot of feedback between physical activity and your clocks,” he says. He suggests being outside and active during the new “daytime” despite fatigue, as well as forming a new eating schedule. “If you’re jet lagged you feel hungry at odd times, you can reset your appetite hormones by eating at the right time for where you are, even if you’re not hungry.”

Crane suggests travelers should not stay awake late at night. This is not always feasible for musicians, but at least avoid caffeine or midnight Internet browsing. “Stay away from computer screens at night. [Eyes] are typically blue light sensitive. Computer screens, which contain a lot of blue light, are good at delaying your clock,” he says.

While ditching screens before bed is the best option, there are apps that can control the amount of blue and white light your devices emit. In addition, light therapy boxes, often used to combat Seasonal Affect Disorder (SAD), are effective solutions to getting daytime light exposure, if you cannot get outside during the day. This can impact the body and mind beyond resetting clocks. “Mammals have really strong rhythms. If we’re out of whack with when we eat and when we sleep, it has big ramifications on our wellbeing,” Crane notes. “Getting people on a good day-night cycle where they see light at the right times and reset their rhythms has shown to be useful for proper mental health.”

There are also options available for those interested in over the counter treatments for their jet lag issues. Widely available, Melatonin—the hormone that contributes to sleep—has varying success from person to person. Melatonin’s effect on the body is “more of a downstream thing” Crane describes. “The central clocks in the brain cause the pineal gland to release melatonin and then the melatonin entrains the peripheral clocks.”

Advancements are on the horizon. Melatonin agnates—artificial compounds that bind to the melatonin receptors better than melatonin does, therefore making the compounds more effective than melatonin—are in clinical trials according to Crane.

Why is it harder to recover from flights traveling east?

This is a puzzling effect of flying. Since the body has a cycle of a little more than 24 hours it’s easier to adapt to a longer day, when traveling west, than when the day shortens when traveling east, according to University of Maryland physicist Michelle Girvan in a 2016 interview with the New York Times.

As far as specific causes on the biochemical level, Crane says molecular biology doesn’t have an exact answer yet. “I’m not sure we completely understand. For some reason [biological clocks] reset more easily from delays than they do advances,” says Crane.