Now is the right time to become an American Federation of Musicians member. From ragtime to rap, from the early phonograph to today's digital recordings, the AFM has been there for its members. And now there are more benefits available to AFM members than ever before, including a multi-million dollar pension fund, excellent contract protection, instrument and travelers insurance, work referral programs and access to licensed booking agents to keep you working.

As an AFM member, you are part of a membership of more than 80,000 musicians. Experience has proven that collective activity on behalf of individuals with similar interests is the most effective way to achieve a goal. The AFM can negotiate agreements and administer contracts, procure valuable benefits and achieve legislative goals. A single musician has no such power.

The AFM has a proud history of managing change rather than being victimized by it. We find strength in adversity, and when the going gets tough, we get creative - all on your behalf.

Like the industry, the AFM is also changing and evolving, and its policies and programs will move in new directions dictated by its members. As a member, you will determine these directions through your interest and involvement. Your membership card will be your key to participation in governing your union, keeping it responsive to your needs and enabling it to serve you better. To become a member now, visit


Officers Columns

Here are the latest posts from our officers


Ray Hair – AFM International President

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    Negotiations Roundup—A Capsule View of Talks in Progress

    The Federation’s negotiations with its bargaining partners, whether on an industry-wide, single-, or multi-employer basis, are a never-ending process. Other than contracts with touring producers such as the Broadway League, most of our negotiations seek improvements in compensation and working conditions when musicians are engaged to perform electronic media services either streamed or broadcast live, or captured for analog and digital distribution.

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Sam FolioW

Sam Folio – AFM International Secretary-Treasurer

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    Emergency Relief Fund: New AFM-ERF Coming Soon

    During the last hurricane season, many will remember the three devastating storms that hit Texas (Harvey), Florida (Irma), and Puerto Rico (Maria). Pictures on the news showed the flooding and destructive wind damage that left many residents reeling from these storms. Homes, automobiles, and personal possessions were heavily damaged, not to mention musical instruments that were destroyed. Venue closings resulted in lost work for musicians. These hurricanes killed hundreds of people and caused more than $200 billion in damage.

    Many AFM members wanted to donate money to help other AFM members adversely affected by these hurricanes. To facilitate donations, the AFM set up a Hurricane Relief Fund page so assistance could be distributed. Many generous donations were received, resulting in more than $40,000 to assist members. We received several applications from Texas and Florida, but very few relief fund applications from Puerto Rico. I know that many of our Puerto Rico members are still getting back on their feet, so we expect there are application submissions yet to come. If you were adversely affected by the hurricanes, had significant uninsured, uncompensated losses, were and are currently an AFM member in good standing, and have not applied for assistance, I urge you to do so.

    However, hurricanes were not the only catastrophes that caused heavy losses for musicians. You may well remember the terrible California wildfires that swept through the San Francisco area and the hills surrounding Los Angeles. We received a request to help these AFM members as well. Since the Hurricane Relief Fund donations were given specifically for hurricane relief, the AFM International Executive Board (IEB) felt it needed to distribute hurricane funds for hurricane relief only.

    However, the IEB decided at their meeting last March to create a generic AFM Emergency Relief Fund (AFM-ERF) so that assistance could be made available (at the discretion of the IEB) for other types of catastrophic events, such as the California wildfires. The IEB approved the allotment of $10,000 from the AFM General Fund as seed money to set up the AFM-ERF with the stipulation that, once the AFM-ERF is well-funded from donations, the IEB could return the AFM-ERF seed money back to the AFM General Fund.

    We are in the process of establishing the AFM-ERF and creating an application form for catastrophic events. The involvement of locals will be part of the vetting process for members to receive assistance from the AFM-ERF, in the same way locals are involved with Hurricane Relief Fund assistance.  When we have the AFM-ERF up and running, an e-mail blast announcing the new fund will go out to local officers and AFM members.

    AFM Annual Report

    The 2017 AFM Annual Report is available for viewing and downloading on the AFM website. After login using your AFM ID and password, go to the Document Library. Then click on the Financial Documents and Annual Report folder to find the 2017 AFM Annual Report, along with other financial documents. After downloading it from the website, you may read it or print it on your printer.

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Alan Willaert – AFM Vice President from Canada

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    Copyright Reform: Why Bother?

    Pour la version française cliquez ici.

    On May 29, I appeared before the Heritage Committee and, on June 5, before the Committee on Industry, Science, and Technology, all part of the statutory review of Canada’s Copyright Act. Why is this important, and how does it affect you, our members?

    Part of the process, along with an appearance before committee, involves written submissions, along with recommendations for change. Our first recommendation is to amend the definition of sound recording within the act. Right now, when your recordings are used in a TV or movie soundtrack, you are able to collect a fee for synchronization. As an AFM member who did the work under our agreements, you would also be eligible for new use payments. However, there is currently no statutory right that protects audiovisual recordings. If Canada were to ratify and enact the terms of the World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) Beijing Treaty, such protection would exist and a tariff set to pay musicians for such use. This is something very much worth fighting for.

    Our second recommendation involves the removal of the $1.25 million royalty exemptions for commercial broadcasters. This was originally intended to be an exemption for “mom and pop” radio stations (including college radio) that generated less than the aforementioned amount in advertising revenue. Instead, when enacted, it exempted the first $1.25 million in revenue from all stations. This is an unnecessary exception that would add millions of dollars worth of royalties for recording artists.

    Our third recommendation involves expansion of the private copying regime to include new technology. Originally a levy on cassettes and CDs, revenue has dropped significantly over the years because, clearly, the preferred method of music storage is micro SD cards, hard drives, cellphones, and the cloud. The law must catch up to the technology, in order to properly compensate musicians for their lost revenue due to file sharing.

    Our fourth recommendation comes in the form of reducing piracy in the digital world, which includes higher levels of responsibility on Internet providers, such as a requirement for notice and takedown of known copyright infringers.

    Fifth, is a push to find ways to maintain Canadian content quotas, starting with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) recognizing the Internet as a broadcast medium and regulating it the same as radio and television. How many world-class Canadian bands would not have had their start without the mandatory support of Canadian radio? While the web has enabled artists to reach the world with their music, the reverse is also true. Without mandatory quotas for streaming, our players may be lost in the colossal torrent of content.

    Our sixth recommendation is a reform of the Copyright Board itself, and covered under a separate submission. Suffice to say, items before the board sometimes take years, which is expensive and totally unnecessary. Flawed decisions are also problematic, such as the unfortunate and underachieving Tariff 8 on streaming. Because the board imposed an old, existing rate on a new tariff, musicians in Canada see 10% of what their counterparts in the US and other countries receive in streaming revenues. In fact, our artists must generate 100 million streams in order to see $10,000, which is ridiculous.

    So why bother? If the CFM and the other witnesses called before the copyright review committees are successful, these meaningful changes to Canada’s Copyright Act would result in significantly more income through our collective management organizations, such as the Musicians Rights Organization of Canada (MROC). While such a change requires an act of parliament through a copyright amendment or omnibus bill, this would be important legislation for all musicians.

    What we are doing now is what we have always done. The CFM was heavily involved with Phase Two of the Copyright Act in 1997, which brought us Neighbouring Rights. The CFM was an integral part of achieving Federal Status of the Artist legislation. This is all possible because of you, and your incredibly important membership in the American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada.

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Other Officer Columns:

Joint Venture Agreement

Are You Using the AFM Joint Venture Agreement to Protect your Intellectual Property?

dave pomeroyby Dave Pomeroy, AFM International Executive Board Member and President of Local 257 (Nashville, TN)

How does it work?

The AFM Joint Venture Agreement is designed for self-contained bands who want to document their recordings and business relationship with a no-cost contract that protects everyone involved. For every successful band, there are many more who don’t make it, and loose ends can come back to haunt you. When you are in your creative and exploratory mode, it’s not always easy to talk business with collaborators. But at some point, it is important to make sure you are all on the same page. A handshake agreement is great until it doesn’t work, and then it really doesn’t work! Along with completing the process of publishing your original tunes, you need to protect the intellectual property rights of your musical performances as well.

What are your options?

You could hire a lawyer to write up a partnership agreement and spend money you and your bandmates could put to better use, like for professional photography and/or album cover design. Or you can use the AFM Joint Venture agreement to clarify the internal financial arrangements you have made with each other for no cost whatsoever, and document your recording in case something good happens down the road. For example, with a four-piece band, if you are the leader, you could have a 40% share and your three bandmates have 20% a piece, or it can be a 25% four-way split. Or if it is a 21-piece big band, you could give yourself 10%, the arranger 6%, and the players 4% apiece.

This system gives you and your band considerable flexibility in figuring out your own unique formula. No pension payment is required on the front end. If the band breaks up and/or sales are less than 34,000 units, that’s it. If sales reach 34,000, then the band will need to enter into the standard Sound Recording Labor Agreement and pay a modest sales royalty to the Sound Recording Special Payments Fund. For example, this payment is less than $1,000 for 50,000 copies sold.

AFM 257 (Nashville, TN) member, trombonist, composer, arranger, and bandleader Chris McDonald says, “I highly recommend the Joint Venture Agreement and used it for my latest recording, A Big (Band) Swinging Christmas. It’s a great way for indie artists to get their music out now!”

How can I make new technologies work for my band?

The changes in technology that have transformed the music business have both helped and hurt musicians in various ways, as many of us have experienced. On the upside, the technology needed to make your own record is more affordable and easier to use than ever, and the possibilities of social media marketing are literally limitless. Acting as your own independent label and owning your intellectual property can really change your bottom line. As John Prine once told me, “When I finally started putting out my own records, I went from making pennies per record to $10 a unit!” Of course, the downside is that people have gotten used to listening to music online for free or a tiny subscription fee. While the CD is still a viable format for many consumers, it also appears to be headed towards obsolescence, at least with the younger generation. In addition to physical product, you may want to consider offering download cards for sale as well, to get your music in the hands of as many people as possible.

What if you use outside players in addition to the band?

If you employ outside players to work on your project, you can pay them using the AFM Single Song Overdub or Limited Pressing agreement. If a signatory label picks up your project, then they will need to file contracts using the AFM SRLA agreement, but the hard part—documenting who is participating and what their ownership percentage is—will already be taken care of when you use the AFM Joint Venture agreement. In every aspect of your career, whether it is writing songs or composing, it is important to document the business side as well. Tools like the Joint Venture agreement are here to help AFM members figure out the best path through the shifting obstacles of the ever-changing modern music business.

Joint Venture Agreement forms and guidelines are available in the Document Library in the Members section of

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In Troubled Times, Stand Up and Fight Back

by Tina Morrison, AFM International Executive Board Member and
Vice President of Local 105 (Spokane, WA)

“This will be our reply to violence: to make music more intensely, more beautifully, more devotedly than ever before.”

—Leonard Bernstein’s response to the assassination of John F. Kennedy

We’re in a pivotal time in the history of the United States. We can agree to disagree on many things, but as musicians, we have to acknowledge the great wealth that immigrants brought to our country. The music we make and listen to every day carries the voices of many cultures intertwined to create beauty in the moment. The idea of closing our borders and shutting out the artists of our future is simply not acceptable to me. Families being separated has undertones of ideas and behavior that cannot be allowed. We have to maintain a legal, ethical program allowing for immigration. Compassion should have a place in such decisions.

Leonard Bernstein was the son of Russian immigrants, Yo-Yo Ma of Local 802 (New York City) was born in France, Eddie Van Halen of Local 47 (Los Angeles, CA) emigrated with his family from the Netherlands, Wyclef Jean is from Haiti, Local 6 (San Francisco, CA) member Carlos Santana’s family emigrated from Mexico. This is just a tiny cross-section of people who have shaped our art form since JFK was assassinated. The blending of cultures influenced classical composers and created jazz. Something that I have always loved about the music community is our diversity. A great drummer is a great drummer!

Current events encompass everything from school shootings to families being torn apart at our southern border. The Supreme Court decision regarding Janus v. AFSCME, which is a direct attack on unions (our members), as well as each state’s rights not to choose “right to work” laws, is looming. Tension has been building with the G-7 Summit and North Korea. Good grief!

I had the opportunity to take a couple of hours on Friday night to listen to one of my favorite local music groups: the Brent Edstrom Trio. (Shout out to AFM Local 105 members: Brent Edstrom, Eugene Jablonsky, and Rick Westrick.) They lived up to the Bernstein quote above and helped me get past the daily awfulness and renew my focus on what’s important. Right now, for me, it’s stand up, fight back!

In the US we have an opportunity to make a change in every election cycle. Participate. Make sure you’re registered to vote (especially in Ohio—check the Supreme Court ruling announced June 11) and help others register to vote. Get to know the candidates running in your region, from precinct committee officers to school board members to senators. Make informed choices. Reach across, around, over, and through borders and boundaries.

Finally, with the suicides that have been in the news, celebrities, veterans, and friends, please remember our country has been through hard times before. For a 10-year period, the US struggled through the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy; the Vietnam War; and the struggle for civil rights.

Make music to tell the stories of our times, to lift our hearts, to strengthen us in our resolve, and give us moments of peace and beauty. Thank you all for your work.

“Above all, we are coming to understand that the arts
incarnate the creativity of a free people ... When the creative
impulse cannot flourish, when it cannot freely select
its methods and objects, when it is deprived of spontaneity,
then society severs the root of art.”

— John F. Kennedy

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mptf advantage

The MPTF Advantage: Employment, Audience Building, Recognition

The Federation’s recently concluded Sound Recording Labor Agreement (SRLA) has brought new life to both the Sound Recording Special Payments Fund (SPF) and the Music Performance Trust Fund (MPTF), which are important residual components of that agreement. As music consumption transitioned to streaming, both funds experienced declining revenue due to the precipitous drop in royalties from physical recorded product (CDs, etc.) and digital downloads, which had been the sole sources of revenue for the funds. 

MPTF, which works closely with officers and staff of Federation locals to sponsor thousands of live, admission-free musical performances each year throughout the United States and Canada, was subsisting on its rapidly declining royalty base. It was running on fumes by 2016. As we ramped up our negotiations with the labels that year, I was determined to not only find a solution for MPTF and restore its health, but to also address funding issues at SPF and our pension fund. Now, new SRLA money from digital distribution, including online streaming and licensing, is revitalizing MPTF and SPF and providing substantial new contributions to the AFM-EP Fund.

Why the Commitment Toward MPTF?

mptf advantage

Brave Combo, members of Local 72-147 (Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX) closing the 2018 Denton Arts and Jazz Festival, entertaining an audience of thousands. The band opened the event 33 years ago performing on a flatbed trailer and have performed every year since.

Over its 70-year history, MPTF has served the Federation, its locals, and its audiences extraordinarily well. From my decades of experience as a local officer, I know how invaluable a dynamic local MPTF program can be. For the vital task of organizing and recruitment, local officers deserve to have the same resources from a healthy and secure MPTF as I had.

My first contact with the AFM was as a college freshman music student when I performed a Trust Fund gig at an outdoor concert on campus.  Years later, as a new officer at Local 72 (now 72-147) in Fort Worth, Texas, I saw the obvious built-in advantages made possible by the local’s program of regularly recurring educational and institutional MPTF performances—the supplemental employment provided; the opportunities for membership recruitment, and audience-building; and the prospect of positive recognition for the local and its members in the communities served. One stellar example of the MPTF advantage has everything to do with the photo below of two-time Grammy winner and Local 72-147 members Brave Combo performing for an audience of thousands on April 29 this year.

Here Is How the Story Goes

Early into my tenure at Local 72, a member advised me that a notice on the bulletin board in the student union at North Texas State University (now UNT), requested that students contact the city parks department to volunteer for summer noontime performances on the Denton, Texas, courthouse square. “Could we turn these into MPTF gigs and get paid for them?” the member asked.

I suggested the member return to the bulletin board, remove the notice, and get me the contact information. In my discussion with the supervising parks department employee, I was amazed to learn of his familiarity with MPTF from his work with another AFM local before moving to Texas. He seemed pleased and downright eager to entertain a relationship with Local 72 to arrange and deliver the entire program of noontime concerts with co-funding through MPTF. The reputation and goodwill of MPTF had preceded me.

The program became known as Concerts on the Square, and was a summer entertainment staple for decades, hosted by the city and the local. A couple of concerts into that first series, the same city employee asked if I thought an afternoon of jazz in a public park would draw an audience. “What a great way to showcase Denton’s culture of musical excellence!” I replied. The city floated the idea with the Convention and Visitors Bureau, which agreed to promote it. We settled on a date—the last Sunday in September—and Denton Jazzfest was born, again arranged by Local 72 and co-funded by MPTF.

Featuring continuous music from noon to sunset, involving more than 60 union musicians performing with eight popular local groups (including a unique polka band named Brave Combo), Denton Jazzfest debuted atop a flatbed trailer in Civic Center Park. It attracted an audience of several hundred. The year was 1985.

By 1991, with media promotion from sponsors KNOK-FM and KJZY-FM, the Denton Jazzfest audience had grown ten-fold. We stayed with the same basic format—an afternoon of great music, booked by Local 72, in a beautiful city park, all admission-free, all co-funded by MPTF.

Also in 1991, the merger year for Locals 72 and 147, the popularity of Denton Jazzfest led to a partnership arrangement with the Denton Festival Foundation and an agreement to expand the event to three days in the park, with three stages presenting all styles of music during the last weekend in April. Now known as the Denton Arts and Jazz Festival, and featuring performances involving several hundred union musicians, the event would eventually draw an estimated 225,000 attendees. But true to its humble beginnings, the format remained the same—a weekend of great jazz and popular music, booked and managed by Local 72-147, all free to attend, and co-funded by MPTF.

My message to local officers and members is this: community leaders are interested in sponsoring public events where citizens can gather and enjoy good music, food, and art. Visit with your community. Offer to provide and manage the music lineup for a community event, subsidized by MPTF. Keep after them about it. Start small, but think big. Get your foot in the door and build relationships. And when you get your shot, use it to attract and build audiences. If you do, community leaders will appreciate you and every musician in town will want to play your show. What an advantage for your local. With MPTF, and its new lease on life, you have a real advantage, especially with the leadership of MPTF Trustee Dan Beck.

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Advocacy and Pension Reform Take Precedence in Washington, DC

As AFM members are confronted with the uncertainties of both tax and pension reform, AFM President Ray Hair has refocused the work of the union’s Office of Government Relations to maximize its visibility and effectiveness relating to issues that impact our jobs and lives.

As I have stated previously, it is important for us to build relationships with coalitions that have similar interests. For some time now, the AFM has joined forces with nationally respected groups that come together to enhance our power of persuasion. One group we work with every year is Americans for the Arts, a nationally recognized organization that enhances the public policy voices of hundreds of national, state, and local arts organizations across the country.

For Arts Advocacy Day this year, in cooperation with the AFL-CIO Department for Professional Employees (DPE) Arts, Entertainment, Media Industries group (our primary coalition partner on most issues), American labor affiliates came together March 12-13 to make your concerns known to federal legislators who are recognized leaders on our issues. Seven meetings, attended by 12 union entertainment affiliates, worked both House and Senate offices on a variety of issues, including unreimbursed tax expenses; pension reform; support for the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting; music licensing; and arts education policy.

Through one collective voice, key legislators learned of the negative impact that the elimination or weakening of these programs will have on artists, American communities, and the overall national economy.

National Endowment of the Arts: This federal program is one of a few that actually pays dividends back to the economy. We emphasized that NEA grants are not frivolous giveaways of public dollars to elite arts groups. In FY 2017, the NEA’s $150 million budget generated more than $500 million in matching support in communities across the country. For each of the 16,000 communities in every congressional district served that takes advantage of the process, every dollar in grant money awarded generates a $9 (9:1) return. As for the artistic value of the NEA, between 2012 and 2016, NEA grant programing reached 24.2 million adults and 3.4 million children. Challenge America grants also supported projects in communities where the arts are limited by geography, economics, or disability.

NEA school and community-based programs supported adult and student programming, state arts collaborations, and programs between arts institutions and pre-K, college, and university educators. Art Works supports art that meets the highest standards of excellence, and inspires public engagement and lifelong learning in the arts to strengthen communities. Last but not least, NEA grants support military veterans and their families through the Creative Forces Program, in cooperation with the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs.

The NEA and NEH were not terminated and will each see a $3 million increase to
$152.8 million in the omnibus budget bill, which passed the Senate early March 23. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting received level funding at $445 million. This is a huge Congressional win for AFM members.

Taxes: For musicians suffering from shortcomings of tax reform changes in the new tax law, during lobbying visits the AFM and its affiliated unions made clear the disadvantages posed by the loss of itemized deductions. We took time with legislative staff to detail the effect of the shortsighted elimination of these deductions, specifically we listed items that will no longer be deductible for musicians working as W-2 employees. This issue also affects members of affiliate unions. Our concerted effort will help move this matter to the front burner when new tax negotiations begin.

As a tool to help understand the tax dilemma, in each office I left a copy of the article by Local 72-147 (Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX) member Scott Stratton, CFP, CFA, that appeared in last month’s International Musician on page 2. This useful tool was shared with each congressional member and his/her tax staffer to use as resource material. (We thank Stratton for his timely article and AFM President Hair for its prominent placement in the IM.)

Music Licensing and Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

As Congress prepares to introduce the comprehensive Music Modernization Act, affiliate unions joined in raising awareness in each legislative office about the importance of supporting new copyright reform/music licensing reform, which has not been updated in more than 30 years. Our primary ask was for members to sign onto one of the principal components of that bill, the Classics Act, which would require digital services to pay both rightsholders and artists for the use of recordings made before 1972. As the musicFIRST Coalition works closely with members of Congress to introduce the overall Music Modernization package, which includes the Music Modernization Act, the Classics Act, and the AMP Act (with willing buyer, willing seller language), the AFM and its affiliates continue to lobby legislators to increase cosponsorship of the Classics Act.

Overall, the DPE-coordinated labor lobbying group left a profound impact on staff and legislators. Many saw this as the first time organized labor made a concerted visit during Arts Advocacy Day to push their powerful arts and entertainment agenda. Though this lobbying group was organized by the DPE, it is our hope to reduce costs in 2019 in order allow more AFM Signature and rank-and-file members to join our lobbying efforts in Washington, DC.

Pension Progress

AFM President Hair, along with the AFM International Executive Board and the AFM-EPF trustees, has made it a priority to engage pension concerns on every level. Official word on AFM pension comes directly from the Office of the President in cooperation with pension plan trustees. However, Hair has instructed the AFM Office of Government Relations, after endorsing S.2147, the Butch Lewis Act of 2017, to monitor and report ongoing Washington, DC, multi-employer pension reform debate activities. Under the last continuing resolution, Congress inserted language that created a new Joint Select Committee to take up the issue of pension reform and solvency.

The comprehensive budget bill that passed February 9, formed the bipartisan-bicameral Joint Congressional Select Committee on Multi-Employer Pension Plans, comprising eight Democrats and eight Republicans from the House and Senate. It is governed by the rules of the Senate Finance Committee.

On process, the United Mine Workers of America reports on its website:

Committee members must be selected by February 23, and the committee must hold its first meeting by March 12 (which took place March 14). The committee is required to make a report to Congress by the last week of November 2018. If there is an agreement to take action, the committee will draft and submit legislative language as part of that report. Agreement to move forward will require at least five Democrats and five Republicans. Any bill they propose will go before the relevant committees in the House and the Senate, where it cannot be amended or voted down. The bills will get expedited votes in both chambers. There will be no amendments allowed. The committee will hold at least five meetings, of which at least three must be public hearings. The committee is encouraged to hold at least one field hearing, away from Washington, DC.

At the initial meeting, it was clear that there is a real need to come up with a solution to this issue. Failure to do so could have devastating consequences for all workers, retirees, affected plans, the public in general, as well as the national economy.

The responsibility of the AFM Office of Government Relations is to engage congressional staff, do real-time reporting of pension related events, and work directly with other AFL-CIO affiliated unions to coordinate information for the AFM President’s Office.

Now that the Select Committee is in full operation, the focus will shift momentarily to policy matters relating to the committee’s design on these troubled pension funds. Committee appointees include Republicans: Co-Chair Orrin Hatch (UT), Rob Portman (OH), Lamar Alexander (TN), Mike Crapo (ID), Virginia Foxx (NC), Phil Roe (R-TN), Vern Buchanan (FL), and David Schweikert (AZ); and Democrats: Co-Chair Sherrod Brown (OH), Joe Manchin (WV), Heidi Heitkamp (ND), Tina Smith (MN), Bobby Scott (VA), Richard Neal (MA), Debbie Dingell (MI), and Donald Norcross (NJ).

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Official Journal of the American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada